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English Pronunciation.

高中英语正确发音的知识与技巧 有关语音的概念

  1. 元音字母:语言的书写形式。元音字母a,e,i(y),o,u
  2. 音标:词的语音形式。
  3. 音素:音的最小的单位。英语中有48音素。
  4. 音节:由元音和辅音构成的发音单位。 ap`ple, stu`dent,tea`cher,un`der`stand
  5. 元音音素:发音响亮,是乐音;口腔中气流不受阻碍;是构成音节的主要音。英语中有20个元音音素。
  6. 辅音音素:发音不响亮,是噪音;口腔中气流受到阻碍;不是构成音节的主要音。英语中有28个辅音音素
  7. 开音节:a)…+辅音+不发音的e结尾 name bike home due; b) 辅音+元音 he,go,hi
  8. 闭音节:a)…+元音+辅音 bad,bed,sit,hot,cup; b)元音+辅音it
  9. 重读音节:单词中发音特别响亮的音节。 元音(7对)【:】长音 【】短音
  1. [i:] sea,he,see,piece,ceiling \
  2. [i] sit,build,miss,myth /
  3. [e] bed,desk,head
  4. [æ] bad,land,bank,stamp
  5. [a:] car,fast,class,plant,calm,aunt
  6. [ɔ] hot,want \
  7. [ɔ:] door,more,sport,ball,warm,author,court,bought,caught /
  8. [u:] good,who,blue,soup \
  9. [u] look,put,women,could /
  10. [Λ] cup,come,blood,rough
  11. [ә:] girl,work,serve,nurse \
  12. [ә] cadre,ago,forget,polite,dollar,doctor,famous,Saturday /
  13. [ei] cake,they,play,eight,great
  14. [ai] bike,die,neither,light,try,find,height,eye
  15. [әu] phone,cold,boat,soul,grow \
  16. [au] house,town /
  17. [ɔi] boy,oil \
  18. [iә] dear,idea,deer,here,fierce /
  19. [εә] pear,care,there,fair \
  20. [uә] tour,poor /

容易混淆的元音

  1. [e] [æ] bed bad; men,man; pen,pan; lend land
  2. [i:] [ei] real rail; greet,great; mean,main; read raid
  3. [e] [ai] bet bite; red write; said side,head,hide
  4. [au] [ɔ:] house horse; loud lord; south sauce; now nor; count corn; cloud clause
  5. [au] [Λ] found fond; gown gone; down don

辅音(10对)

  1. [p] pen
  2. [b] bed,comb
  3. [t] tell
  4. [d],day,played,wanted
  5. [k] cold,sky,quick,school,back,box
  6. [g] big,go,guess,language
  7. [m] man 8) [n] nine,knife,autumn
  8. [η] bank,uncle,English,sing
  9. [l] land,world
  10. [r] read,write
  11. [f] five,cough,laugh 13) [v] voice,of
  12. [θ] think 15) [ð] this,bathe
  13. [s] sit,miss,science,case,scarf 17) [z] zoo,close
  14. [∫] sure,she,social,nation 19) [3] pleasure
  15. [h] hot,who,hour
  16. [w] wall,what,answer
  17. [j] yes
  18. [t∫] child,teach,catch
  19. [d/] joke,bridge
  20. [ts] boats
  21. [dz] goods
  22. [tr] tree
  23. [dr] dream

容易混淆的辅音

  1. [v] [w] vet wet; vest west; vine wine; very well
  2. [s] [θ] sink think; sort thought; miss myth; mass math
  3. [z] [ð] closing clothing; breeze breathe; bays bathes
  4. [n] [η] thin thing; sin sing; ban bang win wing; ran rang

读音规则

(1)元音字母在重读音节中的读音 元音字母 读 音 例 词

  1. a 在开音节中 [ei]
    name plane Jane baby cake
  2. 在闭音节中 [æ]
    bag dad hat map black back e
  3. 在开音节中 [i:] he these me Chinese
  4. 在闭音节中 [e] bed let pen desk yes egg i
  5. 在开音节中 [ai] bike fly drive time nice kite
  6. 在闭音节中 [i] fish big drink sit milk swim o
  7. 在开音节中 [ou] those close go hoe home no
  8. 在闭音节中 [ɔ] clock not box shop sock u
  9. 在开音节中 [ju:] student excuse duty Tuesday
  10. 在闭音节中 [Λ] bus cup jump much lunch
  11. 在开音节中,元音字母u在辅音字母j l r s后面时读[u:]音,例如:June blue ruler super 特例:vague vogue range paste plague change strange taste waste ache waste scythe opaque这些单词中的th ng gu ch st qu都被看作一个整体,都被看 作一个辅音字母,其 中的元音字母按开音节规 则发音。和以上读音现象 不同的词有:tinge[i] many[e] any[e] English[i] pretty[e] policeman[i:] machine[i:]
  12. 这两个词源自法语,保 留法语发音。 下面的两个词 live[i] give[i]保留了古英语的发音。
  13. (2)元音字母在非重读音节中的读音 元音字母 读 音 例 词 a [ә] China another woman breakfast [i] orange comrade village cabbage e [ә] hundred student open weekend [i] chicken pocket begin children i [ә]/[i] holiday beautiful family animal [ai] exercise satellite o [ә] second tonight somebody welcome [u] also zero photo u [ɔ] autumn difficult [ju(:)] popular congratulation January 动词中的a如果处在开音节位置,a读[ei]音,例如:operate u处在开音节位置,又在辅音字母j l r s后面时,读[u(:)]音,例如:July influence February issue 在非重读音节中,许多单词中的元音字母a e i 即可以读作[ә]音,也可以读作[i]音。 不符合规则的词:robot n.机器人 alcohol n.酒精 aerosol n.烟,雾 phenol n.酚苯 substrate n.【生化】【半导体】基质;底物 (3)元音字母在重读音节中的特殊读音 元音字母 读 音 例 词 a在[w]音后面 [ɔ] want what watch wash quality a在f n sk ph sp ss st th前 [α:] after plant graph ask grasp glass fast father i在-nd -ld和gh前 [ai] find child light high o在-st -ld前 [ou] most postcard old cold o在m n v th前 [Λ] come monkey love mother (4)-r音节元音字组在重读音节中的读音 元音字组 读 音 例 词 ar ar在[w]音后面 [α:] car farm dark sharpener [ɔ:] warm quarter towards or or在[w]音后面 [ɔ:] forty morning short [ә:] word worker worse er ir st1:place w:st="on">ur [ә:] certainly bird Thursday 辅音字母r双写时,前面的元音字母不能与r构成-r音节,而是按重读闭音节的拼读规则发音。例如: carry sorry hurry -r音节在非重读音节中通常读[ ]音,例如:dollar teacher martyr forget Saturday 例外的词:attorney[ә:] worn[ɔ:] sword[ɔ:] quarrel[ɔ] surround sur-不重读 suppose sup-不重读 collect col-不重读 (5)-re音节元音字组在重读音节中的读音 元音字组 读 音 例 词 are [ε] care dare hare ere [i] here mere ire [ai] fire hire wire ore [ɔ:] more score before ure [ju] pure cure are ere ire ore很少出现在非重读音节中,ure在非重读音节中读[ ]音,例如:picture pleasure 重读元音字母加Rr,再加非重读元字组时,重读元音字母应按-re音节拼读规则拼读,字母Rr读[r]音。 例如:parent zero story during inspiring 某些常用词及多音节词经常出现长音短化现象。 例如:orange very American paragraph 不符合规则的词:there[ε] where[ε] cire[sә´rei] sure[∫uә] burial[´beriәl] deteriorate[iә] (6)元音字组在重读音节中的读音 元音字组 读 音 例 词 ai/ay [ei] afraid rain wait day play air [εә] air hair chair pair repair al al在f m前 [ɔ] small ball talk wall all [ɔ:l] always also salt almost [α:] half calm au/aw [ɔ:] autumn daughter draw ea [i:] teach easy cheap please [e] heavy bread sweater weather [ei] break great ear [iә] hear dear near clear year [εә] bear pear wear swear [ә:] earth learn early ee [i:] jeep week green three eer [iә] pioneer deer beer ei/ey [ei] eight neighbour they [i:] either key eu/ew在j l r s后 [ju:] new few newspaper [u:] flew brew jewelry ie/ei[s]音之后 [i:] piece field receive oa [ou] coat Joan boat goal oar/oor [ɔ:] roar board door floor oi/oy [ɔi] noise point boy toilet oo [u:] broom food tooth school [u] book look cook foot good ou / ow [au] flower house count down [әu] know row throw though [Λ] young country enough [u:] group you soup our [ɔ:] course your four [au] our hour ours [ә:] journey ui在j l r s后 [ju:i] fluid suicide tuition [u:] juice fruit suit 不符合规则的词: plaid[æ] because[ɔ:] laugh[α:] ea的另外两种发音 Se´attle这个词中的ea并不是个字母组合,双写辅音字母强调其前面的单个元音字母a是重读音节,而且是个闭音节。 [iә] idea really [/] beautiful either[i:]美语发音 ei发[i:]音的例词很少。 abroad[ɔ:] oasis[ɔ:´eisis] oa并未构成元字组,不在同一音节。 knowledge [´nɔ: li d/ ]长音短化现象 ou/ow的另一种发音[ɔ:],cough thought (7)非重读音节中元音字组和字群的读音 元音字组或字群 读 音 例 词 ai/ay ei/ey [i] Sunday foreign monkey ow [ou] yellow sparrow tomorrow 元音字组在非重读音节中读[ә]音或[i]。例如: neighbour serious famous biscuit coffee -sion -tion [ n] impression nation -sion在元音字母后 [ n] vision decision occasion -tion在s后 [ n] question suggestion -sten [sn] listen -stle [sl] whistle -sure [/ ] pleasure measure -ture [t∫] picture culture (8)非重读音节中元音字组和字群的读音 复合词中的第二部分不标注重音符号,但其中的元音字母或元音字组仍按重读音节拼读规则拼读。 例如:everyday[ei] handbag[æ] blackboard[ɔ:] 有些词随着语言的发展,前后两部分已失去其单独存在的意义,融合成为一个词。其中的非重读部分要按非重读音节的读音规则发音。 例如:sun太阳 + day[ei]日子 > Sunday[i] 星期天 holy神圣 + day[ei]日子 > holiday[i] 假日 break中断 + fast[α:]斋戒 > breakfast[ә] 早餐 cup茶杯 + board木板[ɔ:] > cupboard[ә] 碗柜 (9)辅字组的读音 辅字组 读 音 例 词 b [b] bike bus bag [/] bomb tomb  c c在e前或在i/y前 [k] cake picture coat music [s] face decide cinema ch [t∫] much chick rich teacher [k] school headache chemistry [∫] machine Chicago -ck [k] cock pocket black knock d [d] doctor bread hand day -dge [d/] bridge fridge dr- [dr] children driver drink f [f] five four breakfast g g在e i/y前 [g] bag gardon go [d/] orange large German gh [f] cough enough [/] light daughter high gu- -gue [g] guess league dialogue guitar [w] language anguish h [h] hot head house hand [/] hour honest j [d/] jeep jar joke join July k [k] kind bike skate make week kn- [n] knife know knock l [l] life milk school tall m [m] monkey come autumn -mn [m] autumn column solemn n n在[k] [g]音前 [n] not shine ten note [η] uncle thank hungry -ng [η] morning young wrong p [p] paper plane pig ship pen ph [f] elephant photo telephone q [k] Iraq qu- [kw] quality quite r [r] red rubber ruler s在词首或清辅音前 元音字母间或浊辅音前 [s] sit sleep desk [z] music husband sc- [sk] scarlet [s] muscle science sh [∫] she fish shirt wash t在通常情况下 在弱读字母ia ie io前 [t] ten letter meet [∫] patient nation tch [t∫] watch th在通常情况下 在冠词 代词 介词 连词中 在词尾-the -ther中 [θ] thin thirty method [ð] the these with than [ð] clothe father weather tr- [tr] tree train country truck v [v] very voice love leave w [w] week win wake sweet wait [/] answer two wh- wh-在字母o前 [w] what when white why [h] who whose whole x 在重读元音前 [ks] box text exercise [gz] examle exist exact wr- [r] write y- [j] yes yard yellow young z [z] puzzle zero zoo 不符合规则的词:get girl give gird girder girdle gink gimp gimme 和字母k一样,g在字母n前面通常不发音,也可把gn-看成一个辅字组: gnarl gnar gnash gnat gnathic gnathism gnaw gnome gnomic gnu 单词字母g也有不发音的现象: diaphragm 7、特殊读音 1)音的连读:前面的词以元辅音结尾,后面的单词以元音开头,这样结尾的辅音要和开头的元音连读。例如:not at all,half an hour,I love you and all、after all 2)失去爆破:辅音爆破音或摩擦音后面跟的是爆破音、破擦音和摩擦等,前面的辅音要失去爆破。例如:good girl,good student,good job,expression,school,extreme 3)音的同化:两个特殊的音碰到一起,会发出变异成特殊的音。例如: Would you do it? I am glad to meet you Can't you see it? last year, this year。 8、重音 1)单词重音 A)双音节词 a)一般在第一个音节重读。letter,sorry。 b)有 a-,be-,de-,re-,res-,in-,im-,en-,em-,es-,ex-,con-,com-,dis-,mis-,pre-,per-,pro-,trans- 等前缀的词,第二个音节是重音。a`bout,be`lieve,ad`dress,de`cide, re`port, con`demn, res`pect,com`pare,in`form,dis`cuss,im`press, mis`take, en`force,pre`pare,em`ploy,per`mit,es`cape,pro`duce,ex`claim,trans`late。 c)有 de-,in-,re-,con-,pre- 等前缀的重音与词义和词类有关, 一般名词的重音在第一个音节上,其它的词性在第二个音节上。 `record n. / re`cord v.; `insult n./in`sult v.; `conduct n./con`duct v.; `present n./ pre`sent v.; `content n./,con`tent v. d)有些复合词和带有前缀 re-,ex-,un-,pre-,post-,等的词,有两个重音。 `out`side,`re`tell,`well-`known,`un`real,`fif`teen,`Chi`nese,`pre-`war,`post-`war。 B)多音节词 a)一般倒数第三个音节是重音。`difficult,`communist,`family,e`conomy, oppor`tunity ,de`mocracy。 b)有一些双音节词,加了前缀和后缀成了多音节,但这些词按原来词根的重音读音。`carefully,in`definite,`comfortable,con`ductor,ac`cording,dis`turbance,`complicated,es`tablishment。 c)词尾有-eous,-grahpy,-ial,-ian,-ic,-ics,-ience,ient,-ify,-ion,-ious,-ity,ive 后缀的词,重音在这些后缀的前一个音节上。cour`teous,cal`ligraphy,edi`torial,his`torian,peri`odic,mathe`matics,ex`perience,suf`ficient,i`dentify,trans`lation,re`ligious,curi`osity,pro`tective。 d)词尾有 -ain,-ee,-eer,-ese,-ette 后缀的词,重音在该后缀上,而且有一个次重音。enter`tain,emplo`yee,mountai`neer,Japa`nese,ciga`rette。 2)句子重音 A) 英语的节奏:(轻)-轻-重-轻-(轻)或重-轻-(轻)(轻)重。 B) 英语句子的长短:是由句子中的重读词的数目决定的,而不是象汉语那样由句子中的汉字数目决定的。 C) 实词重读(副词重读),虚词轻读(冠词,单音节介词,单音节连词,人称代词,反代词,物主代词,关系代词,相互代词,助动词,情态动词和系动词be。 D) 实词不重读的特殊情况 a) 实词第二次出现 He thinks of that as a child thinks. b) 一个名词被第二个名词修饰 I met her in the railway station. c) 代替词 Which book do you want? The small one. d) 感叹词中的 what 和how What a good day it is! How beautiful she is! e) street 在专有名词中 Wangfujing Street。 f)this在这些短语中,this morning/afternoon/evening 。 E)虚词重读的特殊情况 a) 情态动词,助动词和系动词be在句首,句尾和否定时。 Do you like it? Yes, I do. Are you a doctor? Yes, I am. Can you help me? Yes, I can. I don't like you. He isn't a worker. b) 情态动词表示可能,惊奇和肯定时。 They may come this evening. Can it be five already? He must be in the room. c) 介词在句首和句尾。 In the box, he found a letter. He is the person I talked with. d) 引导复合句的连词在句首。 If you wish, I’ll visit you. When he comes, I’ll tell him. e) 反身代词表示强调。 He couldn't come himself.




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