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/content/English/Grammar-Reference/verbs/verbs-following-verbs
Last Updated October 15, 2020, 1:34 pm 🖶
Modified this week 4 days ago October 15, 2020, 1:34 pm

Verb forms following other verbs or phrases

The three forms of a verb and their meaning

ALT IMG transitive verbs
When a verb follows a verb or verb phrase, how can we tell which form this verb takes? Are there any rules to help us decide? Here are some tips to help you think about this problem.

Tips

  1. Realise the imperative nature of the bare infinitive. The infinitive without 'to'.

    If you say a bare infinitive, it is like a direct order to immediately take action.

    1. Run = Start running NOW!!.
    2. Stop = Stop what you are doing right now!

To regret

What do these sentences mean? What tenses are used?

  1. He deeply regretted having sold the ring.
  2. He deeply regretted selling the ring.
  3. He deeply regretted that he had sold the ring.
  4. He deeply regretted that he sold the ring.

To stop

  1. He stopped to read, but continued on his way afer finishing the first chapter.
  2. He stopped reading, (didn't continue to read), closed the book and continued on his journey.
  3. "I stopped to talk in the classroom"
  4. "I stopped their talking in the classroom" (He told students off, who were speaking in the classroom)
  5. They stopped to look at her (stopped what they were doing and began looking at her).

To try

Try + gerund (several times or a more difficult and time consuming action)

  1. Try standing up.
  2. Try to phone Tracey - she might be at home. (perhaps you don't know her number.)
  3. Try to stand up. try +infinitive - action occurring once (not necessarily difficult?)
  4. I tried to turn the key. (once)
  5. I tried to learn this poem.
  6. I tried turning the key ( if not several times but it was an experiment?)
  7. I tried learning this poem.

To begin

  1. He began working for this company in 1995.
  2. He began to work an hour ago.
  3. She began crying (to cry). ( the subject is alive) (both variants?)
  4. The temperature began to fall. (the subject is lifeless)

To prefer

  1. prefer+ gerund (in general?)
    1. I prefer walking to cycling
    2. I prefer going by air.
  2. prefer + infinitive(in particular, now?)
    1. I prefer to wait here
    2. I prefer to go by air.

propose

  1. I propose waiting till the doctor gets here.
    Я предлагаю подождать, пока не придет доктор
  2. I propose to start tomorrow.
    Я намереваюсь начать завтра.

Require

  1. The house requires painting.
  2. You are required to obey!
  3. You are required to go there. (you are ordered?)

To intend

  1. What do you intend to do about this?
  2. I intended using the report as evidence to support my case.
  3. We intended going to Rome.

Cannot help + (do)

  1. I can't help you to do that.
  2. I can't help doing that.
  3. Could you help me to do that.
  4. You can't help doing that, can you?

to complain of - to complain about -

  1. I complained about barking (adjective) dogs

dream of- dream about

  1. I tried to explain, but in vain/but all in vain/all in vain.
  2. It's rude of him to answer her question in such (a) way.
  3. I have never known him (to) be cruel with animals.
  4. I will have done it by 5 tomorrow.
  5. I will have been doing it for two hours by the time you come.
  6. By the way, I would like to know the answer to the questions:

When do we use participle phrases and when do we use To-infinitive phrases? Are there any pointers to help us decide?

... which ...

Verbs after 'which' can't take a gerund form.

  1. This is the shortest way which leads home.
  2. This is the shortest way leading home.

To go on (phrasal verb)

  1. He went on to finish his speech.
  2. After discussing the economy, the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy.
  3. She went on to say (added?) that I could completely trust the man.
  4. please go on with what you're doing and don't let us interrupt you. [+ -ing verb]
  5. We really can't go on living like this - we'll have to find a bigger house.
  6. [+ to infinitive] She admitted her company's responsibility for the disaster and went on to explain how compensation would be paid to the victims.
  7. What proportion of people who are HIV-positive go on to develop (= later develop) AIDS?
  8. If you go on (= continue behaving) like this you won't have any friends left at all.

Further specific verbs and how they work ...

Verb forms following other verbs or phrases

There are three forms of a verb following another verb.
  1. We use gerunds (verb + ing):
    • After certain verbs - I enjoy singing
    • After prepositions - I drank a cup of coffee before leaving
    • As the subject or object of a sentence - Swimming is good exercise
  2. We use 'to' + infinitive:
    • After - We decided to leave
    • After many adjectives - It's difficult to get up early
    • To show purpose - I came to London to study English
  3. We use the bare infinitive (the infinitive without 'to'):
    • After modal verbs - I can meet you at six o'clock
    • After 'let', 'make' and (sometimes) 'help' - The teacher let us leave early
    • After some verbs of perception (see, watch, hear, notice, feel, sense) - I watched her walk away
    • After expressions with 'why' - why go out the night before an exam?
    • After which ... Verbs after 'which' can't take a gerund form.
      1. This is the shortest way which leads home.
      2. This is the shortest way leading home.
1 Verbs folowed by a bare infinitive. (Infinitive without 'to' )
  1. help
  2. Make
  3. Let
2 Verbs followed by gerund or 'to' plus infinitive with different meanings. These verbs all have different meanings depending on whether then second verb is an infinitive or a gerund form. What do these sentences mean? What tenses are used?

To regret

  1. He deeply regretted having sold the ring.
  2. He deeply regretted selling the ring.
  3. He deeply regretted that he had sold the ring.
  4. He deeply regretted that he sold the ring.

To stop

  1. He stopped to read, but continued on his way afer finishing the first chapter.
  2. He stopped reading, (didn't continue to read), closed the book and continued on his journey.
  3. "I stopped to talk in the classroom"
  4. "I stopped their talking in the classroom" (He told students off, who were speaking in the classroom)
  5. They stopped to look at her (stopped what they were doing and began looking at her).

To try

Try + gerund (several times or a more difficult and time consuming action)
  1. Try standing up.
  2. Try to phone Tracey - she might be at home. (perhaps you don't know her number.)
  3. Try to stand up. try +infinitive - action occurring once (not necessarily difficult?)
  4. I tried to turn the key. (once)
  5. I tried to learn this poem.
  6. I tried turning the key ( if not several times but it was an experiment?)
  7. I tried learning this poem.

To begin

  1. He began working for this company in 1995.
  2. He began to work an hour ago.
  3. She began crying (to cry). ( the subject is alive) (both variants?)
  4. The temperature began to fall. (the subject is lifeless)

To prefer

  1. prefer+ gerund (in general?)
    1. I prefer walking to cycling
    2. I prefer going by air.
  2. prefer + infinitive(in particular, now?)
    1. I prefer to wait here
    2. I prefer to go by air.

propose

  1. I propose waiting till the doctor gets here.
    Я предлагаю подождать, пока не придет доктор
  2. I propose to start tomorrow.
    Я намереваюсь начать завтра.

Require

  1. The house requires painting.
  2. You are required to obey!
  3. You are required to go there. (you are ordered?)

To intend

  1. What do you intend to do about this?
  2. I intended using the report as evidence to support my case.
  3. We intended going to Rome.

Cannot help + (do)

  1. I can't help you to do that.
  2. I can't help doing that.
  3. Could you help me to do that.
  4. You can't help doing that, can you?

to complain of - to complain about -

  1. I complained about barking (adjective) dogs

dream of- dream about

  1. I tried to explain, but in vain/but all in vain/all in vain.
  2. It's rude of him to answer her question in such (a) way.
  3. I have never known him (to) be cruel with animals.
  4. I will have done it by 5 tomorrow.
  5. I will have been doing it for two hours by the time you come.
  6. By the way, I would like to know the answer to the questions:

To forget

  1. I forgot to do my homework. (I didn't do it because I forgot)
  2. I forgot doing my homework. (I did my homework and then forgot about it)

Forget, regret and remember:

When these verbs are followed by a gerund, the gerund refers to an action that happened earlier:

Verbs which can be followed by the gerund or infinitive

3 Some verbs can be followed by the gerund or 'to' plus infinitive with no change in meaning
  1. begin
  2. continue
  3. hate
  4. like
  5. love
  6. neglect
  7. prefer
  8. start
  9. try

Examples

  1. He began to learn English when he was eight.
  2. He began learning English when he was eight.
  3. I hate to leave early.
  4. I hate leaving early.

Verbs Followed by an Infinitive

4 Most verbs, when followed by another verb, have the second verb in 'to' + infinitive form

To go on (phrasal verb)

  1. He went on to finish his speech.
  2. After discussing the economy, the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy.
  3. She went on to say (added?) that I could completely trust the man.
  4. please go on with what you're doing and don't let us interrupt you. [+ -ing verb]
  5. We really can't go on living like this - we'll have to find a bigger house.
  6. [+ to infinitive] She admitted her company's responsibility for the disaster and went on to explain how compensation would be paid to the victims.
  7. What proportion of people who are HIV-positive go on to develop (= later develop) AIDS?
  8. If you go on (= continue behaving) like this you won't have any friends left at all.

To agree

  1. agree to differ (We agree to disagree)
  2. aim to please
  3. appear to have changed
  4. arrange to have it delivered
  5. ask to leave
  6. attempt to escape
  7. be able to cope
  8. beg to differ
  9. begin to understand
  10. care to join us
  11. choose to ignore
  12. condescend to participate
  13. consent to ____
  14. continue to watch TV
  15. dare to argue / to disagree / to think
  16. decide to join
  17. deserve to succeed
  18. expect to pass my exam
  19. fail to notice
  20. forget to mention
  21. get
  22. happen to know who wrote that.
  23. have to admit I missed that
  24. hesitate to recommend that company
  25. hope
  26. hurry to catch a bus
  27. intend to quit at the end of the week
  28. leap
  29. leave to ____
  30. like to dance
  31. long to see my friends
  32. love to play games
  33. mean to continue
  34. neglect to say / to mention
  35. offer to pay
  36. ought to know better
  37. plan to build / to continue
  38. prefer not to say
  39. prepare to meet your maker
  40. proceed to demonstrate
  41. promise to improve
  42. propose to ____
  43. refuse to budge an inch
  44. remember to put ___
  45. say
  46. shoot to kill
  47. start to run
  48. stop to think
  49. strive to perfect
  50. swear to _____
  51. threaten to capture
  52. try to understand
  53. use to ____
  54. wait to see
  55. want to go
  56. wish to be over it
When a verb is followed by an object and then a second verb, the second verb takes 'to' + infinitive form Examples :
  1. Everyone expected her to win.
  2. advise him to quit
  3. allow her to enter
  4. ask them to top
  5. beg us to forgive you
  6. bring him to me
  7. build it to ____
  8. buy
  9. challenge
  10. choose
  11. command
  12. dare
  13. direct
  14. encourage
  15. expect
  16. forbid
  17. force
  18. have
  19. hire
  20. instruct
  21. invite
  22. lead
  23. leave
  24. let
  25. like
  26. love
  27. motivate
  28. order
  29. pay
  30. permit
  31. persuade
  32. prepare
  33. promise
  34. remind
  35. require
  36. send
  37. teach
  38. tell
  39. urge
  40. want
  41. warn
Note: Some of these verbs are included in the list above and may be used without an object. 5 Verbs Followed by a gerund They enjoyed working on the boat.
  1. admit
  2. advise
  3. appreciate
  4. avoid
  5. can't help
  6. complete
  7. consider
  8. delay
  9. deny
  10. detest
  11. dislike
  12. enjoy
  13. escape
  14. excuse
  15. finish
  16. forbid
  17. get through
  18. have
  19. imagine
  20. mind
  21. miss
  22. permit
  23. postpone
  24. practice
  25. quit
  26. recall
  27. report
  28. resent
  29. resist
  30. resume
  31. risk
  32. spend (time)
  33. suggest
  34. tolerate
  35. waste (time)
6

Verbs Followed by a preposition and a gerund

  1. We concentrated on doing well.
  2. admit to
  3. approve of
  4. argue about
  5. believe in
  6. care about
  7. complain about
  8. concentrate on
  9. confess to
  10. depend on
  11. disapprove of
  12. discourage from
  13. dream about
  14. feel like
  15. forget about
  16. insist on
  17. object to
  18. plan on
  19. prevent (someone) from
  20. refrain from
  21. succeed in
  22. talk about
  23. think about
  24. worry about
7 Choose a verb from this list and decide which group 1-6 above this verb belongs to. Make sentences to show this.
help
______
, appreciate
______
, hear
______
, attempt
______
, admit
______
, advise
______
, admit
______
, make
______
, avoid, see, begin, allow, assist, advise, let, arrange, burst out, watch, can't bear, consider, beg, agree, ask, can't stand, continue, forbid, bribe, appear, attempt, contemplate, forget, imagine, command, appreciate choose delay go on permit dare arrange dare deny hate require employ decide decide detest intend enable demand demand dislike love encourage deny deserve endure mean instruct expect expect enjoy plan invite fancy fail escape prefer lead forget grow excuse propose order happen happen face regret persuade hope hasten fancy remember select intend help feel like start send learn hope finish stop teach mean hurry give up try tell mention learn involve train order long it's no good/use urge persuade make (Passive) keep on warn plan managage leave off pledge neglect mention pretend offer mind promise pay miss propose plan postpone regret pledge practise remember pretend put off resent promise resent resolve refuse risk seem resolve spend/waste time suggest, seek, suggest, swear seem, want, teach, struggle, tell, swear, threaten, vow, warn, want, wish

NOTES:

Come + gerund is like other verbs of movement followed by the gerund, and means that the subject is doing something as they move:

  1. She came running across the field.
  2. Come + to-infinitive means that something happens or develops, perhaps outside the subject's control:
  3. At first I thought he was crazy, but I've come to appreciate his sense of humour.
  4. How did you come to be outside the wrong house?
  5. This word has come to mean something quite different.
  1. I remember locking the door (= I remember now, I locked the door earlier)
  2. He regretted speaking so rudely. (= he regretted at some time in the past, he had spoken rudely at some earlier time in the past.)
  3. Forget is frequently used with 'never' in the Simple future form:
  4. I'll never forget meeting the Queen.
  5. When these verbs are followed by a to-infinitive, the infinitive refers to an action happening at the same time, or later:
  6. I remembered to lock the door (= I thought about it, then I did it.)
  7. Don't forget to buy some eggs! (= please think about it and then do it.)
  8. We regret to announce the late arrival of the 12.45 from paddington. (= We feel sorry before we tell you this bad news.)

Go on:

Go on + gerund means to continue with an action:

  1. He went on speaking for two hours.
  2. I can't go on working like this - I'm exhausted.

Go on + to-infinitive means to do the next action, which is often the next stage in a process:

  1. After introducing her proposal, she went on to explain the benefits for the company.
  2. John Smith worked in local government for five years, then went on to become a Member of parliament.

Mean:

Mean + gerund expresses what the result of an action will be, or what will be necessary:

  1. If you take that job in London it will mean travelling for two hours every day.
  2. We could take the ferry to France, but that will mean spending a night in a hotel.

Mean + to-infinitive expresses an intention or a plan:

  1. Did you mean to dial this number?
  2. I mean to finish this job by the end of the week!
  3. Sorry - I didn't mean to hurt you.

Stop:

Stop + gerund means to finish an action in progress:

  1. I stopped working for them because the wages were so low.
  2. Stop tickling me!

Stop + to-infinitive means to interrupt an activity in order to do something else, so the infinitive is used to express a purpose:

  1. I stopped to have lunch. (= I was working, or travelling, and I interrupted what I was doing in order to eat.)
  2. It's difficult to concentrate on what you are doing if you have to stop to answer the phone every five minutes.

Try:

Try + gerund means to experiment with an action that might be a solution to your problem.

  1. If you have problems sleeping, you could try doing some yoga before you go to bed, or you could try drinking some warm milk.
  2. 'I can't get in touch with Carl.' 'Have you tried e-mailing him?'

Try + to-infinitive means to make an effort to do something. It may be something very difficult or even impossible:

  1. The surgeons tried to save his life but he died on the operating table.
  2. We'll try to phone at 6 o'clock, but it might be hard to find a public telephone.
  3. Elephants and mice have to try to live together in harmony.

THE INFINITIVE

FuNCTION

The most common uses of the infinitive are:

To indicate the purpose or intention of an action (where the 'to' has the same meaning as 'in order to' or 'so as to'):

  1. She's gone to collect her pay cheque.
  2. The three bears went into the forest to find firewood.

As the subject of the sentence:

  1. To be or not to be, that is the question.
  2. To know her is to love her. (Note: this is more common in written English than spoken)

With nouns or pronouns, to indicate what something can be used for, or what is to be done with it:

  1. Would you like something to drink?
  2. I haven't anything to wear.
  3. The children need a garden to play in.

After adjectives in these patterns:

  1. It is + adjective +to-infinitive It is good to talk
  2. It is + adjective + infinitive + for someone + to-infinitive.
  3. It is hard for elephants to see mice
  4. It is + adjective + infintive + of someone + to-infinitive.
  5. It is unkind of her to say that.

After an adjective + noun when a comment or judgement is being made:

  1. It was a stupid place to park the car.
  2. This is the right thing to do.
  3. It was an astonishing way to behave.

With too and enough in these patterns:
too much/many (+ noun) + to-infinitive

  1. There's too much sugar to put in this bowl.
  2. I had too many books to carry.

too + adjective + to-infinitive

  1. This soup is too hot to eat.
  2. She was too tired to work.

too + adverb + to-infinitive

  1. He arrived too late to see the actors.

enough (+ noun) + to-infinitive

  1. I've had enough (food) to eat.
  2. adjective + enough + to-infinitive
  3. She's old enough to make up her own mind.

not enough (+noun) + to-infinitive

  1. There isn't enough snow to ski on.

not + adjective + enough + to-infinitive

  1. You're not old enough to have grand-children!

'- ING' FORM
VERBS FolLOWED BY THE gerund
The gerund is used after certain verbs.
Example: miss: I miss living in England.

The most important of these verbs are shown below. Those marked * can also be followed by a that-clause

Example:

VERB gerund
She admitted... breaking the window
  THAT-CLAuSE
She admitted...that she had broken the window.
  1. acknowledge,*
  2. admit,*
  3. anticipate,*
  4. appreciate,*
  5. avoid
  6. celebrate
  7. consider, contemplate
  8. defer
  9. delay
  10. deny,*
  11. detest
  12. dislike
  13. dread
  14. enjoy
  15. entail
  16. escape
  17. excuse
  18. fancy (=imagine)*,
  19. finish,
  20. forgive,
  21. imagine,*
  22. involve,
  23. keep,
  24. loathe,
  25. mean,(=have as result)*
  26. mention
  27. mind,
  28. miss,
  29. pardon,
  30. postpone,
  31. prevent,
  32. propose,*
  33. recall
  34. recollect
  35. remember
  36. report
  37. resent,
  38. resist,
  39. risk,
  40. save (=prevent the wasted effort)
  41. stop
  42. suggest
  43. understand

Notes:

Appreciate is followed by a possessive adjective and the gerund when the gerund does not refer to the subject. Compare : I appreciate having some time off work. (I'm having the time...) I appreciate your giving me some time off work. (You're giving me the time...)

Excuse, forgive, pardon can be followed by an object and the gerund or for + object and the gerund (both common in spoken English), or a possessive adjective + gerund (more formal and less likely to be said): Excuse me interrupting. Excuse me for interrupting. Excuse my interrupting.

Suggest can be used in a number of ways, but BE CAREFuL. It is important not to confuse these patterns:

suggest/suggested (+ possessive adjective) + gerund: He suggests going to Glastonbury He suggested going to Glastonbury He suggested/suggests my going to Glastonbury

suggest/suggested + that-clause (where both that and should may be omitted):

  1. He suggests that I should go to Glastonbury
  2. He suggested that I should go to Glastonbury
  3. He suggested/suggests I should go to Glastonbury
  4. He suggested/suggests I go to Glastonbury
  5. He suggested I went to Glastonbury.

suggest/suggested + question word + infinitive: He suggested where to go.

propose is followed by the gerund when it means 'suggest':

  1. John proposed going to the debate

but by the infinitive when it means 'intend': The Government proposes bringing in new laws..
Stop can be followed by a gerund or infinitive, but there is a change of meaning - see gerund / INFINITIVE? section.
Dread is followed by the infinitive when used with 'think', in the expression 'I dread to think': I dread to think what she'll do next.
prevent is followed EITHER by a possessive adjective + gerund:
You can't prevent my leaving.
OR by an object + from + gerund: You can't prevent me from leaving.
Examples:

  1. Normally, a mouse wouldn't contemplate marrying an elephant.
  2. Most mice dread meeting elephants.
  3. We can't risk getting wet - we haven't got any dry clothes.
  4. If you take that job it will mean getting home late every night.
  5. I can't imagine living in that big house.
  6. If you buy some petrol now, it will save you stopping on the way to London.
  7. She couldn't resist eating the plum she found in the fridge.
  8. They decided to postpone painting the house until the weather improved.

gerunds and infinitives can both be used as subjects, subject complements, and direct objects of verbs. The choice of whether to use a gerund or infinitive as a subject, subject complement, or object of some verbs is left to the speaker/writer. This choice can indicate shades of meaning.
But the choice between which to use as a direct object is sometimes dictated by the verb, leaving no choice. Which verbs can be followed by gerunds, which by infinitives, (and which by either) must be memorized. In addition, some verbs require that an infinitive object have a different subject (agent) from that of the first verb, for others no other agent is possible, and for some both are possible. Again, these must be memorized. The associated with gerunds and infinitives can offer clues, but do not always predict which forms are possible.
Remember, the question here concerns verbs which control gerunds and infinitives as their objects. Of course, both infinitives and gerunds can follow an unlimited number of verbs for other reasons. For example, infinitives can also follow verbs to show purpose, in reduced adjective or adverb clauses, or with other meanings. gerunds with noun modifiers can be the objects of many different verbs. And present participles, which may look like gerunds, are not controlled by preceding verbs. And remember that noun clauses can also be used as objects of many of these same verbs

VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OR gerund OBJECTS, with little or no difference in meaning: ____ studying. ____ to study.
can afford can't bear begin cease commence continue dread hate like loathe love neglect prefer propose (can't) stand start undertake
VERBS THAT CAN HAVE gerund OBJECTS, BuT NOT INFINITIVES: (usually actual events, often past) _____ (his) studying gerund subjects (agents) are usually possessive (his , etc.)
admit anticipate appreciate avoid complete consider defend delay deny detest discuss dislike enjoy escape excuse his finish get through give up go on can't help imagine involve keep (on) would like (him) mention (not) mind miss postpone practice put off quit recall recollect recommend report resent resist resume risk (can't) see stop suggest take up tolerate understand
VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OBJECTS, BuT NOT gerundS: (often suggesting a potential or unreal event) _______ to study him = infinitive must have a subject (agent) for him = infinitive must have a subject introduced by for (him) or (for him) = subject (agent) of infinitive is optional (none of the above = verb is followed directly by the infinitive)
agree aim appear appoint him arrange (for him) authorize him ask (him) beg (him) (not) care cause him challenge him choose (him) claim command him condescend consent convince him dare (him) decide demand deserve desire direct him enable him endeavor expect (him) fail force him get (him) happen hesitate hire him help him hope instruct him intend invite him lead him learn long manage motivate him need (him) oblige him offer order him pay him persuade him plan prepare (him) pretend proceed promise refuse remind him resolve seem select him send him strive struggle swear tell him tend threaten train him trust him volunteer vow wait (for him) want (him) warn him wish (him) yearn
VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OR gerund OBJECTS, but with a difference in meaning:
________ studying actual:first it happens; then there is mental activity) ________ to study. potential: first there is mental activity about a possible future event)
attempt forget mean regret remember try do it, hoping for success do it, then have a mental lapse it exists, it has a significance do it, then feel bad do it, then be aware of it do it, hoping for success make an effort, hoping to do it have a mental lapse, and therefore not do it have an intention to do it feel bad, but then do it think about it, and then do it make an effort, hoping to do it
VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OBJECTS WITH AGENTS, OR gerundS : _______ studying ___ him to study
advise allowencourage forbidpermitrequire teachurge

English Page gerunds
please have a look there, it may be I forgot to copy something you are intereted in.

gerunds and Infinitives part 1

1. A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." The gerund form of the verb "read" is "reading." You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.

Examples:
Reading helps you learn English. subject of sentence Her favorite hobby is reading. complement of sentence I enjoy reading. object of sentence

gerunds can be made negative by adding "not."

Examples:
He enjoys not working. The best thing for your health is not smoking.

2. Infinitives are the "to" form of the verb. The infinitive form of "learn" is "to learn." You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.

Examples:
To learn is important. subject of sentence The most important thing is to learn. complement of sentence He wants to learn. object of sentence
Infinitives can be made negative by adding "not."
Examples:
I decided not to go. The most important thing is not to give up.
Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as the subject or the complement of a sentence. However, as subjects or complements, gerunds usually sound more like normal, spoken English, whereas infinitives sound more abstract. In the following sentences, gerunds sound more natural and would be more common in everyday English. Infinitives emphasize the possibility or potential for something and sound more philosophical. If this sounds confusing, just remember that 90% of the time, you will use a gerund as the subject or complement of a sentence.
Examples:
Learning is important. normal subject To learn is important. abstract subject - less common The most important thing is learning. normal complement The most important thing is to learn. abstract complement - less common
4. As the object of a sentence, it is more difficult to choose between a gerund or an infinitive. In such situations, gerunds and infinitives are not normally interchangeable. usually, the main verb in the sentence determines whether you use a gerund or an infinitive.
Examples:
He enjoys swimming. "Enjoy" requires a gerund. He wants to swim. "Want" requires an infinitive.
Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects. List of Verbs Followed by gerunds
Examples: She suggested going to a movie. Mary keeps talking about her problems.
Some verbs are followed by infinitives. List of Verbs Followed by Infinitives
Examples:
She wants to go to a movie. Mary needs to talk about her problems.

Verbs Followed by gerunds

9 = verb followed by a gerund OR a noun + an infinitive 13 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning 14 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with little difference in meaning
admit He admitted cheating on the test.
advise [ 9] The doctor generally advised drinking low-fat milk.
allow [ 9] Ireland doesn't allow smoking in bars.
anticipateI anticipated arriving late.
appreciateI appreciated her helping me.
avoidHe avoided talking to her.
begin [ 14] I began learning Chinese.
can't bear [ 14] He can't bear having so much responsibility.
can't helpHe can't help talking so loudly.
can't seeI can't see paying so much money for a car.
can't stand [ 14] He can't stand her smoking in the office.
cease [ 14] The government ceased providing free healthcare.
completeHe completed renovating the house.
consider She considered moving to New York.
continue [ 14] He continued talking.
defend The lawyer defended her making such statements.
delay He delayed doing his taxes.
deny He denied committing the crime.
despise She despises waking up early.
discuss We discussed working at the company.
dislike She dislikes working after 5 pM.
don't mind I don't mind helping you.
dread [ 13] She dreads getting up at 5 AM.
encourage [ 9] He encourages eating healthy foods.
enjoyWe enjoy hiking.
finish [ 13] He finished doing his homework.
forget [ 13] I forgot giving you my book.
hate [ 14] I hate cleaning the bathroom.
imagine He imagines working there one day.
involve The job involves traveling to Japan once a month.
keep She kept interrupting me.
like [ 14] She likes listening to music.
love [ 14] I love swimming.
mention He mentioned going to that college.
mind Do you mind waiting here for a few minutes.
miss She misses living near the beach.
need [ 13] The aquarium needs cleaning.
neglect [ 14] Sometimes she neglects doing her homework.
permit [ 9] California does not permit smoking in restaurants.
postpone He postponed returning to paris.
practice She practiced singing the song.
prefer [ 14]He prefers sitting at the back of the movie theater.
propose [ 14]I proposed having lunch at the beach.
quit [ 13]She quit worrying about the problem.
recallTom recalled using his credit card at the store.
recollectShe recollected living in Kenya.
recommendTony recommended taking the train.
regret [ 13]She regretted saying that.
remember [ 13]I remember telling her the address yesterday.
reportHe reported her stealing the money.
require [ 9]The certificate requires completing two courses.
resentNick resented Debbie's being there.
resistHe resisted asking for help.
riskHe risked being caught.
start [ 14]He started studying harder.
stop [ 13]She stopped working at 5 o'clock.
suggest They suggested staying at the hotel.
tolerate I tolerated her talking.
try [ 13] Sam tried opening the lock with a paperclip.
understand I understand his quitting.
urge [ 9] They urge recycling bottles and paper.

Verbs Followed by Infinitives

8= verb followed by an infinitive OR an optional noun + an infinitive 13 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning 14= verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with little difference in meaning
agreeTom agreed to help me.
appear His health appeared to be better.
arrange Naomi arranged to stay with her cousin in Miami.
ask [ 8] She asked to leave.
begin [ 13] He began to talk.
can't bear [ 14] He can't bear to be alone.
can't stand [14] Nancy can't stand to work the late shift.
care He doesn't care to participate in the activity.
cease [14] The government ceased to provide free healthcare.
choose [8] I chose to help.
claim She claimed to be a princess.
continue [14] She continued to talk.
decide We decided to go to Hawaii.
demand He demanded to speak to Mr. Harris.
deserve He deserves to go to jail.
dread [13] I dread to think what might happen.
expect [8] They expect to arrive early.
fail He failed to get enough money to pay for the new project.
forget [13] I forgot to lock the door when I left.
get (be allowed to) Debbie gets to go to the concert next week! Why can't I?
happen She happened to be at the bank when it was robbed.
hate [14] He hates to clean dishes.
hesitate She hesitated to tell me the problem.
hope I hope to begin college this year.
intend We intend to visit you next spring.
learn I learned to speak Japanese when I was a kid.
like [14] Samantha likes to read.
love [14] We love to scuba dive.
manage He managed to open the door without the key.
need [8,13] I need to study.
neglect [14] She neglected to tell me the date of the meeting.
offer Frank offered to drive us to the supermarket.
plan We plan to go to Europe this summer.
prefer [14] He prefers to eat at 7 pM.
prepare [8] They prepared to take the test.
pretend The child pretended to be a monster.
promise [8] She promised to stop smoking.
propose [14] Drew proposed to pay for the trip.
refuse The guard refused to let them enter the building.
regret [13] I regret to inform you that your application was rejected.
remember [13] Did you remember to lock the door when you left?
seem Nancy seemed to be disappointed.
start [13] Marge started to talk really fast.
swear She swore to tell the truth.
tend He tends to be a little shy.
threaten [8] He threatened to leave forever.
try [13] Mary tried to lift the table, but it was too heavy.
vow He vowed to get revenge.
wait She waited to buy a movie ticket.
want [8] I want to study Spanish.
wish [8] I wish to stay.
would like [8] (meaning "wish" or "want") We would like to start now.
yearn Melanie yearns to travel somewhere exotic.

gerunds and Infinitives part 2

7. gerunds can often be modified with possessive forms such as his, her, its, your, their, our, John's, Mary's, the machine's, and so on. This makes it clearer who or what is performing the action.

Examples: I enjoyed their singing. They were singing. She understood his saying no to the offer. He said no. Sam resented Debbie's coming late to the dinner. Debbie came late to the dinner. We discussed the machine's being broken. The machine is broken.

8. Some verbs are followed by a noun plus an infinitive. In some situations, the noun is required. In other situations, the noun is optional. List of Verbs Followed by a Noun + an Infinitive

Examples: The police ordered the man to stop. noun is required She asked to leave. noun is optional She asked him to leave. noun is optional

Some verbs are usually followed by a gerund, BuT they can also be followed by a noun plus infinitive. using a noun plus infinitive will usually change who is performing the action. List of Verbs followed by a gerund OR a Noun + Infinitive

Examples:
I advised taking the train. in general I advised him to take the train. He will take the train.
There are many "go + gerund" expressions used for adventure sports and individual recreational activities. List of Go + gerund Combinations
Examples:
I go swimming every weekend. Would you ever go skydiving?
11. gerunds are used after prepositions. Most commonly, these are "verb + preposition" combinations. For reference, see the Verb + preposition Dictionary and the phrasal Verb Dictionary. You don't have to memorize these resources, you just need to remember that gerunds are used after prepositions!
Examples: They admitted to committing the crime. Leslie made up for forgetting my birthday. He is thinking about studying abroad.

12. Remember that there are many "adjective + preposition" combinations and "noun + preposition" combinations in English as well. These are also followed by gerunds. List of Adjective + preposition Combinations Followed by gerunds and List of Noun + preposition Combinations Followed by gerunds. Once again, you don't have to memorize these resources, you just need to remember that gerunds are used after prepositions!

Examples: Sandy is scared of flying. adjective + preposition Nick is anxious about taking the examination. adjective + preposition His interest in becoming a professional snowboarder was well known. noun + preposition Thomas' story about seeing a grizzly bear was really exciting. noun + preposition

Verbs Followed by Nouns + Infinitives

List 1: Verb + Required Noun + Infinitive

  • advise

    I advised them to see a doctor.

  • allow

    Ireland doesn't allow people to smoke in bars.

  • cause

    He caused her to make a mistake.

  • convince

    Ned convinced me to quit my job.

  • enable

    Financial aid enabled the students to pay such expensive tuition fees.

  • encourage

    He encourages his patients to eat healthy foods.

  • force

    The commander forced the soldiers to march in the rain.

  • get (cause to)

    Isabelle got Mike to wash her car.

  • hire

    Mr. Donelly hired Sarah to work as a receptionist.

  • invite

    We invited them to join us.

  • order

    The police ordered him to put his hands in the air.

  • permit

    California doesn't permit people to fish without a fishing license.

  • remind

    They reminded me to pay the bills before the end of the month.

  • require

    The certificate requires students to complete two courses.

  • tell

    He told me to shut up.

  • urge

    They urge citizens to recycle bottles and paper.

  • warn

    She warned him not to be late.

List 2: Verb + Optional Noun + Infinitive

Notice in the examples below that the verbs can be followed by an infinitive or a noun plus an infinitive. When a noun is added, it usually changes who or what is performing the action. To understand this better, look at the first verb "ask" and its examples. In the first sentence, she is asking if she herself can leave. In the second sentence, she is requesting that a man leave. Study the examples below and consider how the optional noun changes the meaning.

ask She asked to leave. She asked him to leave.
choose I chose to help out. I chose him to help out.
expect They expect to arrive early. The expect him to arrive early.
need I need to clean the house. I need her to clean the house.
prepare They prepared to take the test. They prepared her to take the test.
promise She promised to stop smoking She promised him to stop smoking.
threaten He threatened to leave forever. He threatened her to leave forever.
want I want to study Spanish. I want my son to study Spanish.
wish I wish to stay. I wish him to stay. rare form
would like We would like to start now. We would like him to start now.

Verbs Followed by Either gerunds OR Nouns + Infinitives

advise I advised seeing a doctor. I advised them to see a doctor.
allow Ireland doesn't allow smoking in bars. Ireland doesn't allow people to smoke in bars.
encourage He encourages eating healthy foods. He encourages his patients to eat healthy foods.
permit California doesn't permit fishing without a fishing license. California doesn't permit people to fish without a fishing license.
require The certificate requires completing two courses. The certificate requires students to complete two courses.
urge They urge recycling bottles and paper. They urge citizens to recycle bottles and paper.

Adjective + preposition Combinations Followed by gerunds

The following is ONLY A SAMpLE liST of the most commonly used adjective + preposition combinations that can be followed by gerunds.

accustomed toHe is accustomed to having his own office.
addicted to She is addicted to watching TV.
afraid of She is afraid of speaking in public.
anxious about Norma is anxious about making the presentation.
bored of I am bored of doing the same old job.
capable of He is capable of winning a gold medal.
committed to She is committed to improving her English.
concerned aboutNancy was concerned about being late.
content withTim is content with winning second place.
dedicated to The organization is dedicated to ending poverty.
devoted to The money will be devoted to protecting the environment.
disappointed with Fiona was disappointed with coming in third place.
discouraged by He was discouraged by not getting the job.
excited about The researcher was excited about going to Africa.
famous for That actor is famous for being extremely weird.
fond of She is fond of having picnics.
frightened of She is frightened of being alone at night.
guilty of The banker was guilty of stealing money.
happy about He was happy about winning the lottery.
interested in She is interested in becoming a doctor.
involved in He was involved in making the movie.
known for She was known for causing problems.
opposed to They are opposed to building a new road in the park.
proud of He was proud of having completed the marathon.
remembered for She is remembered for protecting mountain gorillas.
responsible for He is responsible for causing the damage.
scared of Tina is scared of being alone at night.
terrified of The surfer is terrified of being attacked by a shark.
tired from She is tired from working all day.
tired of Margaret is tired of making dinner every night.
worried about The hikers were worried about not having enough water.

Noun + preposition Combinations Followed by gerunds

The following is ONLY A SAMpLE liST of the most commonly used noun + preposition combinations that can be followed by gerunds.

addiction to His addiction to surfing the Internet is a problem.
advantage of He has the advantage of speaking English fluently.
anxiety about Her anxiety about speaking in public caused her to lose the job.
belief in His belief in not harming animals was something he learned from his mother.
credit for She took credit for improving the filing system.
dedication to His dedication to teaching was impressive.
delay in The delay in processing the visa caused problems.
devotion to His devotion to biking allowed him to win the competition.
disadvantage of The disadvantage of flying is that you can't see the scenery along the way.
experience in She has a great deal of experience in introducing new products to international markets. With the noun "experience," sometimes a gerund is added without the preposition "in." "Experience introducing new products" would also be acceptable.
fear of His fear of flying made travel difficult.
fondness for Her fondness for traveling led to her career in the travel industry.
habit of His habit of smoking in restaurants caused many problems in California.
interest in Her career as a pilot evolved out of her interest in flying.
knowledge of Her knowledge of climbing helped her during the competition.
love of His love of singing developed when he was a child.
memory of Their memories of traveling in Africa will stay with them forever.
preference for I think his preference for speaking his native language is natural.
process of The process of painting such a large mural is more complicated than you might think.
reaction to His reaction to winning the prize was quite funny.
reason for The main reason for taking the course is to improve your language skills.
regret for The criminal's regret for committing the crime did not convince the judge.
report on The magazine's report on choosing the right car was not well researched.
reputation for Her reputation for lying is well known.
responsibility for His responsibility for completing the project on time was acknowledged by the company.
story about I don't know if I believe his story about seeing a uFO.
talent for His talent for learning languages was impressive.

gerunds and Infinitives part 3

13. Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive, but with a difference in meaning. List of Verbs Followed by a gerund or Infinitive (Different Meaning)
Examples:
Nancy remembered getting married. Nancy has a memory of getting married. Fred remembered to bring sunblock to the beach. Fred remembered that he needed to bring sunblock.
14. Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive with little difference in meaning. List of Verbs Followed by a gerund or Infinitive (Similar Meaning)
Examples: She likes swimming. She likes to swim.

Although the difference in meaning is small with these particular verbs, and gerunds and infinitives can often be used interchangeably, there is still a meaning difference. using a gerund suggests that you are referring to real activities or experiences. using an infinitive suggests that you are talking about potential or possible activities or experiences. Because of this small difference in meaning, gerunds and infinitives cannot always be used interchangeably, such as in the examples below.

Examples: The British reporter likes living in New York. He lives in New York and he likes what he experiences there. The British reporter likes to live in New York whenever he works in the united States. He likes the option or possibility of living in New York when he works in the united States. I like speaking French because it's such a beautiful language. I like the experience of speaking French, and the way it makes me feel when I speak the language. I like to speak French when I'm in France. I prefer the option of speaking French when I am in France.

15. There are many "be + adjective" combinations that are commonly followed by infinitives. List of Be + Adjective Combinations Followed by Infinitives

Examples:
They were anxious to begin. She was delighted to receive such good feedback. He is lucky to have such good friends.
16. There are also many nouns that are commonly followed by infinitives. List of Nouns Followed by Infinitives
Examples:
It was a good decision to move to San Francisco. His wish to become an actor was well known. Laura's desire to improve impressed me.
17. Sometimes infinitives are used to express the idea of "in order to do something."

Examples:
He bought the English dictionary to look up difficult words. in order to look up Janine sold her car to get the money that she needed. in order to get Juan uses Englishpage.com to learn English. in order to learn

This idea of "in order to do something" is found in many English patterns.

too + adjective/adverb + infinitive

Examples: The box is too heavy to carry. The television is too expensive to buy. Fiona ran too slowly to win the race. We arrived too late to see the beginning of the movie.

adjective/adverb + enough + infinitive

Examples:
She is tall enough to reach the book on the shelf. Brian was smart enough to enter college at the age of 12. Linda runs quickly enough to win the race.

enough + noun(s) + infinitive

Examples:
He has enough money to buy his own car. Cheryl owns enough books to start her own library! Diane needs enough time to finish writing her book.

18. Certain expressions are followed by "ING" forms. List of Expressions followed by Verb+ing Forms

Examples: He had fun fishing. They had difficulty finding a parking place. She spent her time practicing the piano.

19. Verbs which indicate location can often be followed by "ING" forms. This pattern is VERB OF LOCATION + LOCATION + VERB+ING. List of Verbs of Location

Examples: Sarah stood at the corner waiting for Tom. Melissa lay in bed thinking about her future. Don clung to the side of the cliff looking down.

20. In addition to Simple gerund and infinitive forms, there are Progressive gerund and infinitive forms, Passive gerund and infinitive forms and Perfect gerund and infinitive forms as well as combinations of these forms. Progressive forms are used to emphasize that an action is taking place now. Passive forms are used to emphasize that the subject of the sentence is being acted upon. Perfect gerund and infinitive forms are used to emphasize completion in both the past and the future. Study the examples below to help understand these concepts. To learn more about Progressiveness, the Passive voice and the Perfect aspect, complete the Englishpage.com Verb Tense Tutorial.

  gerund FORMS INFINITIVE FORMS
Simple The teacher enjoys teaching. The teacher wants to teach.
Progressive Mr. Smith is really enjoying teaching his class. Looks the same as Simple form above. Mr. Smith would like to be teaching his class.
Passive The students enjoy being taught. The students want to be taught.
Perfect The retired teacher recalled having taught. The teacher was expecting to have taught that already.
Passive + Progressive The students are enjoying being taught by such an exciting new teacher. (Looks the same as the Passive form above.) The students would like to be being taught by Mr Smith.
Passive + Perfect The older students recalled having been taught that already. The students were expecting to have been taught that by now.

Verbs Followed by gerunds OR Infinitives (Different Meaning)

begin

She began singing. She began to sing.

When "begin" is used in non-continuous tenses, you can either use a gerund or an infinitive.

She is beginning to sing. When "begin" is used in continuous tenses, an infinitive is used.
dread She dreaded taking the test. usually "dread" is followed by a gerund. He dreaded to think of the consequences of his actions. "Dread" is sometimes used with infinitives such as "think" or "consider." In the sentence above, "dreaded to think" means "did not want to think."
forget She forgot reading the book when she was a kid. When "forget" is used with a gerund, it means "to forget that you have done something." The sentence above means that she read the book when she was a kid, and that she has forgotten that fact. She forgot to pay the rent this month.
When forget is used with an infinitive, it means "to forget that you need to do something." The sentence above means that she forgot that she needed to pay the rent.
keep She kept talking. "Keep" is normally used with a gerund to mean that you continue doing an action. The attackers kept hostages to prevent the police from entering. "Keep" can also be used with an object followed by an infinitive, but then the infinitive takes on the meaning of "in order to... ." In the sentence above, the attackers kept hostages in order to prevent the police from entering.
need The house needs cleaning. When "need" is used with a gerund, it takes on a Passive meaning. The sentence above means "the house needs to be cleaned." He needs to call his boss. He needs him to call his boss. "Need" is usually used with an infinitive or an object + an infinitive.
regret I regretted being late to the interview. "Regret" is normally used with a gerund. We regret to inform you that your position at the company is being eliminated. "Regret" is sometimes used with infinitives such as "to inform." In the sentence above, "We regret to inform you" means "We wish we did not have to tell you (bad news)."
remember I remember mentioning the meeting yesterday. When "remember" is used with a gerund, it means "to remember that you have done something." The sentence above means that I mentioned the meeting, and that I remember the fact that I did that. He remembered to turn off the lights before he left. When "remember" is used with an infinitive, it means "to remember that you need to do something." The sentence above means that he remembered that he needed to turn the lights off.
start Marge started talking really fast. Marge started to talk really fast. When "start" is used in non-continuous tenses, you can either use a gerund or an infinitive. Marge is starting to talk really fast. When "start" is used in continuous tenses, an infinitive is used. I started to learn Russian, but it was so much work that I finally quit the class. In other situations, an infinitive means that you did not complete or continue an action.
stop He stopped smoking for health reasons. "Stop" is normally used with a gerund. He stopped to rest for a few minutes. When "stop" is used with an infinitive, the infinitive takes on the meaning of "in order to." In the sentence above, he stopped in order to rest for a few minutes.
try She can't find a job. She tried looking in the paper, but there was nothing. She tried asking friends and family, but nobody knew of anything. She also tried going shop to shop, but nobody was hiring. "Try + gerund" means to try or to experiment with different methods to see if something works. She tried eating the snake soup, but she didn't like it. "Try + gerund" is often used when you experiment with something, but you do not really like it or want to do it again. She tried to climb the tree, but she couldn't even get off the ground. When you "try to do" something, you want to do it, but you do not succeed in actually doing it. In the sentence above, an infinitive is used because she cannot successfully climb the tree. Try not to wake the baby when you get up tomorrow at 5 AM. An infinitive is also used if you are asking someone to try something they may or may not be able to accomplish.

Verbs Followed by gerunds OR Infinitives (Similar Meaning)

can't bear He can't bear being alone. He can't bear to be alone.
can't stand Nancy can't stand working the late shift. Nancy can't stand to work the late shift.
cease The government ceased providing free health care. The government ceased to provide free health care.
continue She continued talking. She continued to talk.
hate He hates cleaning dishes. He hates to clean dishes.
like Samantha likes reading. Samantha likes to read.
love We love scuba diving. We love to scuba dive.
neglect He neglected doing his daily chores. He neglected to do his daily chores.
prefer He prefers eating at 7 pM. He prefers to eat at 7 pM.
propose Drew proposed paying for the trip. Drew proposed to pay for the trip.

REMEMBER

Although the difference in meaning is small with these particular verbs, and gerunds and infinitives can often be used interchangeably, there is still a meaning difference. using a gerund suggests that you are referring to real activities or experiences. using an infinitive suggests that you are talking about potential or possible activities or experiences. Because of this small difference in meaning, gerunds and infinitives cannot always be used interchangeably, such as in the examples below.

Examples: he British reporter likes living in New York. (He lives in New York and he likes what he experiences there.) The British reporter likes to live in New York whenever he works in the united States. (He likes the option or possibility of living in New York when he works in the united States.) I like speaking French because it's such a beautiful language. (I like the experience of speaking French, and the way it makes me feel when I speak the language.) I like to speak French when I'm in France. (I prefer the option of speaking French when I am in France)

Be + Adjective Combinations Followed by Infinitives

be amazedHe was amazed to discover the truth.
be anxiousShe was anxious to start her new job.
be ashamedHe was ashamed to admit he had lied.
be boundShe is bound to be elected class president.
be carefulThey were careful not to reveal the winner of the prize until the end.
be certainShe is certain to get the job.
be contentThe student was content to receive second place in the competition.
be delightedWe were delighted to be invited to the wedding.
be determinedHe was determined to finish the marathon.
be eagerHe was eager to begin.
be eligibleThey were not eligible to participate in the program.
be fortunateShe was fortunate to receive the research grant.
be gladI would be glad to help out.
be happyShe was happy to see them at the party.
be hesitantMary was hesitant to say anything.
be liableThe mountain climber is liable to hurt himself if he doesn't usewell-made equipment.
be likelyThey are likely to show up at any time.
be luckyYou were lucky to have such an opportunity.
be pleasedI am pleased to meet you.
be proudHe was proud to have been chosen to lead the project.
be readyI'm ready to go now.
be reluctantThe witness was reluctant to reveal what he had seen.
be sadShe was really sad to leave.
be shockedHe was shocked to discover the truth.
be sorryI am sorry to have to tell you that the tickets are sold out.
be surprisedShe was surprised to discover that he had never learned how to swim.

Nouns Followed by Infinitives

adviceHis advice to continue was good.
appealThe appeal to reduce pollution was ineffective.
attemptHer attempt to locate them was unsuccessful.
chanceIn Britain, you will have a chance to improve your English.
decisionThe decision to increase taxes was not popular.
desireHis desire to get a good job motivated him.
dreamHer dream to become an actress was never realized.
goalHis goal to run a marathon seemed unrealistic.
motivationHer motivation to enter university impressed them.
needBob's need to be the center of attention was irritating.
opportunityThe opportunity to live in New York interested Sandra.
order They followed the general's order to retreat.
permission permission to enter the area was difficult to get.
plan Sandy's plan to move to Madrid bothered her parents.
preparation NASA's preparations to launch on Monday moved forward.
proposal Her proposal to host the party impressed the committee.
recommendation His recommendation to close the school upset the community.
refusal Debra's refusal to help did not go unnoticed.
reminder Her reminder to review the vocabulary helped me pass the test.
request Their request to participate was granted.
requirement Their requirement to speak four languages was unreasonable.
suggestion His suggestion to leave seemed like a good idea.
tendency His tendency to tap his desk during a test annoyed me.
wish Her wish to be treated normally was respected.
way One way to improve your English is to read novels.

Expressions followed by VERB+ing

have (some) problemsHe had some problems reading without his glasses.
have a difficult time She had a difficult time hiking up the mountain.
have a good time They had a good time snorkeling.
have a hard time She had a hard time explaining the situation.
have a problem Debbie had a problem understanding his accent.
have an easy time She had an easy time selling the delicious cookies.
have difficulty Wanda had difficulty translating the letter by herself.
have fun The had fun skiing.
have no difficulty They had no difficulty finding a discount flight to London.
have no problem Francis had no problem getting from the airport to the hotel.
spend one's time He always spends his time working out at the gym.
waste one's time She always wastes her time playing video games.

Location Verbs Followed by VERB+ing

cling She clung to the bottom of the bridge trying to resist the swift current.
cower The family cowered in their basement hoping the tornado would change directions.
crouch The mountain lion crouched on a bolder watching the deer walk by below.
hang The monkey hung in the tree chewing on the ripened fruit.
lean Tom leaned against the wall resting a few moments before he continued on.
lie He lay in bed thinking about the day's events.
sit She always sits on the couch watching TV.
stand Nancy stood at the corner looking up and down the street.

Verb + to + infinitive

Some verbs can be followed by another verb. The structure is usually
verb + TO + infinitive. The infinitive is used without to in several cases.
Other terms for the infinitive without to are: the to-less infinitive, or bare infinitive.

Make sentences with these verbs.
use the forms:
verb + to + infinitive
verb + not to + infinitive

offer decide hope
deserve attempt promise
agree plan aim
afford manage threaten
refuse arrange learn
forget ask fail

Joining infinitives with And, or, except, but or than

When two infinitive structures are joined by and, or, except, but or than, the second infinitive is often without to.

  1. I'd like to lie down and go to sleep.
  2. Do you want to have lunch now or wait till later?
  3. We had nothing to do except (to) look at the posters outside the cinemas.
  4. I'll do anything but work on a farm.
  5. It's easier to persuade people than (to) force them.

Allow , permit, advise, forbid

We use an -ing form after these verbs on their own. They didn't allow eating in the laboratories.
However, if we specify an object or use a Passive form, we use a full infinitive form instead. They didn't allow anyone to eat in the laboratories. We weren't allowed to eat in the laboratories. Out of Grammar for English Language Teachers

Direct object + to-infinitive clause

Some verbs may be used with a direct object (in green in the examples below) followed by a to-infinitive clause (underlined in the examples below). These verbs include:

  1. advise
  2. forbid
  3. recommend
  4. ask
  5. implore
  6. remind
  7. beg
  8. instruct
  9. request
  10. challenge
  11. invite
  12. teach
  13. command
  14. order
  15. tell
  16. direct
  17. persuade
  18. urge

Did they ever advise you to go and see a doctor? Sally invited her to stay lots of times.



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